In 1992 a cargo ship
carrying bath toys got caught in a storm.
Shipping containers washed overboard, and the waves swept 28,000 rubber
ducks and other toys into the North Pacific. But they didn’t stick together. Quite
the opposite–the ducks have since washed up all over the world, and researchers
have used their paths to chart a better understanding of ocean currents.
Ocean currents are
driven by a range of sources: the wind, tides, changes in water density, and
the rotation of the Earth. The topography of the ocean floor and the shoreline
modifies those motions, causing currents to speed up, slow down, or change
Ocean currents fall
into two main categories: surface currents and deep ocean currents. Surface
currents control the motion of the top 10 percent of the ocean’s water, while
deep-ocean currents mobilize the other 90 percent.
Though they have
different causes, surface and deep ocean currents influence each other in an
intricate dance that keeps the entire ocean moving. Near the shore, surface
currents are driven by both the wind and tides, which draw water back and forth
as the water level falls and rises.
Meanwhile, in the open
ocean, wind is the major force behind surface currents. As wind blows over the ocean,
it drags the top layers of water along with it. That moving water pulls on the
layers underneath, and those pull on the ones beneath them.
In fact, water as deep
as 400 meters is still affected by the wind at the ocean’s surface. If you zoom
out to look at the patterns of surface currents all over the earth, you’ll see
that they form big loops called gyres, which travel clockwise in the northern
hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the southern hemisphere. That’s because of
the way the Earth’s rotation affects the wind patterns that give rise to these
If the earth didn’t
rotate, air and water would simply move back and forth between low pressure at
the equator and high pressure at the poles. But as the earth spins, air moving
from the equator to the North Pole is deflected eastward, and air moving back
down is deflected westward. The mirror image happens in the southern
hemisphere, so that the major streams of wind form loop-like patterns around
the ocean basins. This is called the Coriolis Effect.
The winds push the
ocean beneath them into the same rotating gyres. And because water holds onto
heat more effectively than air, these currents help redistribute warmth around
the globe. Unlike surface currents, deep ocean currents are driven primarily by
changes in the density of seawater.
As water moves towards
the North Pole, it gets colder. It also has a higher concentration of salt, because
the ice crystals that form trap water while leaving salt behind. This cold,
salty water is more dense, so it sinks, and warmer surface water takes its
place, setting up a vertical current called thermohaline circulation.
circulation of deep water and wind-driven surface currents combine to form a
winding loop called the Global Conveyor Belt. As water moves from the depths of
the ocean to the surface, it carries nutrients that nourish the microorganisms which
form the base of many ocean food chains.
The global conveyor
belt is thelongest current in the world snaking all around the globe. But it
only moves a few centimeters per second. It could take a drop of water a
thousand years to make the full trip. However, rising sea temperatures are causing
the conveyor belt to seemingly slow down. Models show this causing havoc with weather
systems on both sides of the Atlantic, and no one knows what would happen if it
continues to slow or if it stopped altogether.
The only way we’ll be
able to forecast correctly and prepare accordingly will be to continue to study
currents and the powerful forces that shape them.